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Validators secure the Relay Chain by staking DOT, validating proofs from collators and participating in consensus with other validators.

These participants play a crucial role in adding new blocks to the Relay Chain and, by extension, to all parachains. This allows parties to complete cross-chain transactions via the Relay Chain. Parachain validators participate in some form of off-chain consensus, and submit candidate receipts to the tx pool for a block producer to include on-chain. The Relay Chain validators guarantee that each parachain follows its unique rules and can pass messages between shards in a trust-free environment.

With parachains now on the network, para-validators are selected every epoch to validate parachain blocks for all parachains connected to the Relay Chain. Para-validators work in groups to validate parachain blocks.

The selected para-validators are one of validators randomly selected (per epoch) to participate in the validation, creating a validator pool of 200 para-validators.

Validators perform two functions:

  1. Verifying that the information contained in an assigned set of parachain blocks is valid (such as the identities of the transacting parties and the subject matter of the contract).
  2. Participating in the consensus mechanism to produce the Relay Chain blocks based on validity statements from other validators. Any instances of non-compliance with the consensus algorithms result in punishment by removal of some or all of the validator’s staked DOT, thereby discouraging bad actors. Good performance, however, will be rewarded, with validators receiving block rewards (including transaction fees) in the form of DOT in exchange for their activities.


Other References

Security / Key Management

Monitoring Tools

  • PANIC for Polkadot - A monitoring and alerting solution for Polkadot / Kusama node
  • Polkadot Telemetry Service - Network information, including what nodes are running on a given chain, what software versions they are running, and sync status.

Validator Stats

  • HashQuark Staking Strategy - The HashQuark staking strategy dashboard helps you choose the optimal set-up to maximize rewards, and provides other useful network monitoring tools.
  • Polkastats - Polkastats is a cleanly designed dashboard for validator statistics.
  • YieldScan - Staking yield maximization platform, designed to minimize effort.
  • Subscan Validators Page - Displays information on the current validators - not as tailored for validators as the other sites.